**Mathematics Strands**- The mathematics department offers content in two different strands. Each strand is unique and is designed to meet the different current and future needs of students.
- College Prep Strand: Non-Honors College Preparatory strand for students not intending to pursue a collegiate mathematics or science major.
- Honors Strand: Honors-level College Preparatory strand designed to prepare students for collegiate study of mathematics or science majors. [NOTE: Students who completed Algebra 1 or higher in the middle school will enter this strand of study.]

- Students may request a level change (College Prep/Honors/AP) through their counselor. Level changes will not be considered before the midpoint of the first marking period of the year or semester. Please note: The following are not considered to be level changes:
- AP Calc AB or BC to AP Stats
- AP Stats to AP Calc AB or BC
- Honors Trig/Precalc AB to BC or BC to AB
- AP Calc AB to BC or BC to AB
- IB Math 1 or 2 to Honor Trig/Precalc AB or BC
- AP Calc AB or BC to IB Math 1 or 2
- AP Stats to IB Math 1 or 2

- The mathematics department offers content in two different strands. Each strand is unique and is designed to meet the different current and future needs of students.

**Course Selection Policy**- Mathematics courses are designed in a specific sequence to ensure students learn all the appropriate mathematics content as outlined by the Common Core Standards and the Keystone Exams. The program is designed so that all students complete at least Algebra 1 and two additional credits of math. Students wishing to change strands must be cautious to ensure they are meeting this requirement. Furthermore, changing strands generally includes a significant change in the rigor and expectations placed upon students. Therefore it is recommended that students have earned at least a 90% in a College Prep course before moving to an Honors course. Additionally, due to the rigor of the Honors level, it is expected that students earn at least an 80% each year in order to continue at the Honors level.
- Students making selections based upon the traditional sequence of courses can do so without any consultation. Students wishing to make selections that deviate from the recommended sequence or involve a change in strand should consult with their teacher, their counselor, and possibly the mathematics content specialist to ensure it is an appropriate decision for the student.

**PSSA Performance**- Student performance on the eighth grade PSSA will be factored into course selection decisions. Non-proficient performance on the PSSA indicates a need for greater support to ensure that students graduate with the expected level of mathematics knowledge.

**Keystone Exam Performance**- Student performance on the Algebra 1 Keystone Exam will also be factored into course selection decisions. Passing the Algebra 1 Keystone Exam, beginning with the graduating class of 2022, will be a graduation requirement. Therefore, students who do not pass this exam, will be required to retake the exam during a subsequent testing round. Students will be scheduled for 2 periods of mathematics in order to remediate and prepare for retaking the exam.

**Mathematics Flowchart**- The “traditional” path of courses is included in the Mathematics Flowchart below. A path that “changes strands” may not be shown on the chart and should only be made with consultation of current math teacher, guidance counselor, and possibly the mathematics content specialist.
- The choice of mathematics courses for “grade 12” is fundamentally interest-based, determined on a student’s future goals. Consultation with the current math teacher and school counselor is strongly recommended.
- Students wishing to take IB Math during their junior and senior years must have completed Honors Algebra 1, Honors Algebra 2, and Honors Geometry before entering the program.

**Foundations of Mathematics (this course may not be selected by students)****Grade 9/10/11/12, #MTH005, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY) ***Registration Restriction: To enroll in this course, students must be students with limited or interrupted formal education. Placement into the course is at the discretion of the ELD and counseling staff.*

This course will assist students with limited or interrupted formal education bridge the gap between their current mathematics skills and the high school Pre-Algebra curriculum. Using individual and small group instruction and various online resources, the course will focus on providing students with the most critical concepts from the pre-high school PA Core Mathematics Standards. Specific emphasis will be placed on real-life application of mathematics skills and on preparing students for the topics that will be addressed in Pre-Algebra. After completion of this course, students will be placed in Pre-algebra.

**Survey of Mathematics (this course may not be selected by students) ****Grade 10/11, #MTH040, ½ credit, 5 periods (S) ****Registration Restriction: Any student who scores non-proficient on the Algebra Keystone Exam will have this course assigned in lieu of study halls or other electives. **

The fundamental purpose of the course is to ensure students have mastered the Common Core Standards and eligible content for the Algebra Keystone Exam. This course is designed to remediate students who were not proficient in an effort to increase scores of subsequent attempts at the Algebra 1 Keystone. Passing the Algebra I Keystone Exam is required for graduation beginning with the class of 2022.

**Pre-Algebra (this course may not be selected by students)****Grade 9, #MTH009, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY) ***Registration Restriction: Placement into this course is at the discretion of the mathematics department.*

This course will help students build a strong foundation for high school mathematics by learning and applying content from each of the five mathematics strands: numbers and computation, measurement, geometry, algebraic concepts, and data analysis and statistics, as well as learning strategies for mathematical reasoning, problem solving and communication. The course will focus specifically on skills needed for success in Algebra 1, including order of operations, solving one- and two-step equations, and graphing/interpreting linear functions. A specific emphasis will be given to using step-by-step problem-solving and reasoning throughout the curriculum. After completion of this course, students will be placed into Algebra 1A, followed by Algebra 1B. At the conclusion of Algebra 1B, students will take the Algebra 1 Keystone Exam.

# college prep strand

**College Prep Algebra 1 A****Grade 9/10, #MTH010, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY) **

**College Prep Algebra 1 B****Grade 10/11, #MTH011KS, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY) **

*Prerequisite: Previously taken Middle School Intro to Algebra with less than 80%. PVAAS prediction scores will also be used in determining placement in the 1-year vs. 2-year Algebra 1 course.*

This course presents the Algebra 1 curriculum over the span of 2 years. Students must take both years. This course is designed for the student who is not likely to pursue a mathematical or scientific major. During this course, students will cover all material included in Algebra 1, while reviewing necessary pre-algebra topics in order to ensure success. Topics covered will include algebraic rules, solving, graphing, and writing linear equations and inequalities, systems of linear equations and inequalities, exponents and exponential functions, quadratic equations, polynomials, and factoring. Students enrolled in this course will be required to take the Keystone Exam at the completion of the course.

**College Prep Algebra 1****Grade 9/10/11, #MTH011YRKS, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY) ***Prerequisite: Previously taken Middle School Intro to Algebra with a minimum of 80%. PVAAS prediction scores will also be used in determining placement in the 1-year vs. 2-year Algebra 1 course.*

This full-year course is designed for the student who is not likely to pursue a mathematical or scientific major. Topics covered will include algebraic rules, solving, graphing, and writing linear equations and inequalities, systems of linear equations and inequalities, exponents and exponential functions, quadratic equations, polynomials, and factoring. Note: Based on successful completion of this course, as well as teacher recommendation and Keystone Exam score, students will be placed into CP or Honors Algebra 2 in 10th grade. Students enrolled in this course will be required to take the Keystone Exam at the completion of the course.

**College Prep Algebra 2****Grades 9/10/11/12, #MTH031YR, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY) ***Prerequisite: Successful completion of CP Algebra 1 or 1B.*

This course is designed for the student who is not likely to pursue a mathematical or scientific major. The course will include the following topics: advanced linear and nonlinear functions, quadratic functions and applications, analysis of functions, advanced systems of equations and inequalities, polynomials and polynomial functions, rational expressions and functions, the complex number system, and exponential and logarithmic functions.

**College Prep Geometry****Grades 9/10/11/12, #MTH021YR, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY) ****Prerequisite: Successful completion of CP Algebra 2 or CP Algebra 1B.**

This course is designed for the student who is not likely to pursue a mathematical or scientific major. The course will include the following topics: sets, distance, lines, planes, angles, triangles, congruence, transformations, perpendicular lines and planes, parallel lines and planes, area, similarity, coordinate geometry, circles, spheres, volume, and basic algebra review.

**College Prep Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus****Grades 11/12, #MTH043, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY)** **Prerequisite: Successful completion of CP Algebra 2 and CP Geometry**

This course builds upon the skills and concepts developed in Algebra 1, Algebra 2 and Geometry. The following topics will be stressed: functions and graphs, polynomial and rational functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, trigonometric functions, analytic trigonometry, systems of equations and inequalities, and sequences and series. Special Note: Juniors who enroll in this class may not take AP Calculus during their senior year. Their only mathematics course options during the senior year will be CP Calculus, AP Statistics or a semester of College Prep Statistics.

**College Prep Calculus****Grade 12, #MTH046, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY)****Prerequisite: Successful completion of CP Trig/Precalculus or H Trig/Precalculus as juniors.**

This is an introductory calculus and analytic geometry course with an emphasis on applications and is taught from an intuitive approach. This course is not recommended for students interested in taking the AP Calculus test. The course covers the concepts of functions, limits, continuity, and derivatives as well as applications of these concepts.

**College Prep Trigonometry****Grade 12, #MTH041, ½ credit, 5 periods (S)****Prerequisite: Successful completion of CP Algebra 2 and CP Geometry.**

This course is intended to provide the student with sufficient skills to successfully pursue college courses in Business Administration and Applied Calculus. Topics include: circular and trigonometric functions, graphing, solving triangles, elementary identities and solving trigonometric equations and applied problems. Special Note: This course does not serve as a prerequisite for any other mathematics course in the high school, so it should only be taken as preparation for further mathematics study after high school.

**College Prep Statistics****Grade 12, #MTH042, ½ credit, 5 periods (S)****Prerequisite: Successful completion of CP Algebra 2 and CP Geometry.**

This course focuses on the collection, organization, analysis and interpretation of data with an emphasis on hypothesis formulation and testing. The course is intended to provide an introduction to Elementary Statistics and is recommended for students who have determined that they will pursue business or social science curricula in college. Special Note: Students may not take this course in addition to AP Statistics. This course may be taken as an elective in the event that the mathematics graduation requirements have been fulfilled.

# honors strand

**Honors Algebra 2****Grades 9/10, #MTH033, 1 credit, weight 1.05, 5 periods (FY)*** Prerequisite: Completion of CP Algebra 1with a minimum grade of 85%, teacher recommendation, and a score of advanced on the Algebra 1 Keystone Exam.*

This course is a continuation of the Honors Algebra 1 course. Problem Solving will be stressed. Topics covered include: a review and use of the axioms and theorems of the real numbers system; functions and relation theory in the real and complex systems; the study and application of exponents and radicals; first degree equations and inequalities in one and two variables; systems of linear equations and inequalities in two and three variables; rational expressions and equations; quadratic equations in one variable; complex number system; logarithmic and exponential functions; and polynomial functions. Special Note: Students can take this course along with an Honors Geometry during their sophomore year in order to take AP Calculus.

**Honors Geometry****Grades 9/10/11, #MTH023, 1 credit, weight 1.05, 5 periods (FY)***Prerequisite: Completion of Honors Algebra 2 with a minimum grade of 80%.*

This course builds on the concepts and skills developed in Honors Algebra 1 and Honors Algebra 2. The course will develop geometry as a deductive system and the relationships that exist between the elements of the system will be studied. Emphasis will be on the use of symbolic logic and proof. Special Note: Students can take this course along with Honors Algebra 2 course during their sophomore year in order to take AP Calculus.

**Honors Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus AB****Grades 11/12, #MTH044, 1 credit, weight 1.05, 5 periods (FY) ****Prerequisite: Completion of Honors Algebra 2 and Honors Geometry with minimum grades of 75%.**

This course is designed to prepare the student for the Advanced Placement Calculus AB course. Topics will include: a brief review of sets, relations, functions, and logic; circular and trigonometric functions including their graphs and inverses as well as applications; analytic geometry concepts; and selected topics of advanced algebra. Special Note: This course is a prerequisite for AP Calculus AB.

**Honors Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus BC ****Grades 10/11/12, #MTH045, 1 credit, weight 1.05, 5 periods (FY) ****Prerequisite: Completion of Honors Algebra 2 and Honors Geometry with minimum grades of 75%.**

This course is designed to prepare the student for the Advanced Placement Calculus BC course. The course will briefly review logic, sets, relations, functions and operations. New material developed will include: circular and trigonometric functions including their graphs and inverses as well as applications, absolute value inequalities, mathematical induction, and analytic geometry concepts. In addition, this course will introduce concepts of Calculus as preparation for AP Calculus BC. Special Note: This course is a prerequisite for AP Calculus BC.

**Advanced Placement Calculus AB****Grades 11/12, #MTH047, 1 credit, weight 1.10, 5 periods (FY) ***Prerequisite: Successful completion of Honors Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus AB or BC with a minimum grade of 75%.*

This is an introductory calculus and analytic geometry course with emphasis on applications and is taught from an intuitive approach which provides a foundation for preparation for the Advanced Placement Calculus AB examination. The following concepts are discussed: functions, limits, and continuity, derivatives, antiderivatives, definite integrals and infinite series. NOTE: There is a summer assignment for this course.

**Advanced Placement Calculus BC****Grades 11/12, #MTH048, 1 credit, weight 1.10, 5 periods (FY) ***Prerequisite: Successful completion of Honors Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus BC with a minimum grade of 75%.*

This is a full-year calculus and analytic geometry course with emphasis on theory and applications and is taught with a formal axiomatic approach. The course will prepare a student for the Advanced Placement Calculus BC examination. The following concepts are discussed: functions, limits, continuity, derivatives, antiderivatives, definite integrals, and infinite series.

**Advanced Placement Statistics****Grade 12, #MTH057, 1 credit, weight 1.10, 5 periods (FY) ***Prerequisite: Successful completion of any Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus course with a minimum grade of 75%.*

This is an activity-based course in which students actively construct their own understanding of the concepts and techniques of Statistics. Topics include: exploring data, planning and design of a study, anticipating patterns and making statistical inference. Special Note: AP Statistics cannot be taken as a replacement for a Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus class but may be taken concurrently with one of the three Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus courses.

**IB Mathematics Year 1****Grade 11, #IBO311**

**IB Mathematics Year 2****Grade 12, #IBO312 **

**IB Mathematics Year 1 - Accelerated****Grade 11, #IBO316 **

**IB Mathematics Year 2 - Accelerated****Grade 12, #IBO317 **

Students participating in the International Baccalaureate Program during their Junior and Senior year will satisfy their mathematics graduation requirements through the completion of some of these courses. IB Mathematics Year 1 can be taken in lieu of Honors Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus AB or BC. The course descriptions can be found in the International Baccalaureate section of the planning guide.

# computer science electives

Elective courses cannot be taken as replacement mathematics credit for any mathematics course prior to and including a trigonometry course. Computer courses cannot be counted as a mathematics credit for graduation.

- Introduction to Python is not a prerequisite for any other computer science course and there are no prerequisites for taking the course.
- Introduction to Python can be taken in the same year as Honors Computer Programming.
- Introduction to Python cannot be taken in the same year as or after the AP computer science courses.

**Introduction to Python****Grades 9/10/11/12, #MTH050, ½ credit, 5 periods (S) **

This course introduces computer programming using the Python programming language. Emphasis is placed on common algorithms and programming principles utilizing the standard library distributed with Python.

**Year 1 – Honors Computer Programming****Grades 9/10/11/12, #MTH051, ½ credit, weight 1.05, 5 periods (S) ***Prerequisite: Successful completion of CP Algebra 1 or Honors Algebra 1.*

For students who intend to pursue a computer-related or engineering program in college, this course will introduce object-oriented programming using the Java-based language of Karel as well as objectdraw using Java. Students will learn the fundamentals of program design and implementation, focusing on objects and methods. Within this context, students will learn the basics of control structures, loops, user interfaces and graphics. This course is required for any student who plans to take AP Computer Science A in the future. Any student not taking this course and going on to AP Computer Science A will be required to complete some summer activities to ensure adequate preparation for the AP course.

**Year 2 - Advanced Placement Computer Science Principles****Grades 10/11/12, #MTH053, 1 credit, weight 1.10, 5 periods (FY) ***Prerequisite: Successful completion of Honors Algebra 2 and Computer Programming.*

For students who intend to pursue a computer-related or engineering program in college, this course will utilize the Advanced Placement Computer Science Principles curriculum. Topics include: the digital (binary) representation of information – numbers, text, images, and communication protocols, Internet Protocol (IP), DNS, TCP/IP, cryptography and other security and hacking concerns, an introduction to programming in the JavaScript language and creating small applications (apps) that live on the web, and extracting knowledge from data by writing programs that generate data to model or simulate a scenario as well as process large lists of data imported from other sources and also pull data from live data APIs. At the conclusion of the curriculum, students will be prepared to take the Advanced Placement Computer Science Principles examination. Special Note: This course may not be taken after AP Computer Science A. NOTE: There is a summer assignment for this course.

**Year 3 - Advanced Placement Computer Science A****Grades 11/12, #MTH052, 1 credit, weight 1.10, 5 periods (FY) ****Prerequisite: Successful completion of Honors Geometry and AP Computer Science Principles.**

For students who intend to pursue a computer-related or engineering program in college, this course will utilize the Advanced Placement Computer Science A curriculum in the language Java. Topics include: variables, classes, objects, control structures, arrays, object-oriented design, inheritance, polymorphism and recursion. Students will be exposed to large-scale projects as case studies and implement a software engineering project. At the conclusion of the curriculum, students will be prepared to take the Advanced Placement Computer Science A examination. Special Note: This course may not be taken before AP Computer Science Principles if you plan to take both AP Computer Science Courses. NOTE: There is a summer assignment for this course.