**Mathematics Strands**The mathematics department offers content in two different strands. Each strand is unique and is designed to meet the different current and future needs of students.

*Non-Honors College Preparatory strand for students not intending to pursue a collegiate mathematics or science major.*

**College Prep Strand:***Honors-level College Preparatory strand designed to prepare students for collegiate study of mathematics, science, or engineering major. [NOTE: Students who completed Algebra 1 or higher in middle school will enter this strand of study.]*

**Honors Strand:**Students may request a level change (College Prep/Honors/AP) through their counselor. Level changes will not be considered before the midpoint of the first marking period of the year or semester.

Please note: The following are not considered to be level changes:

- AP Calc AB or BC to AP Stats
- AP Stats to AP Calc AB or BC
- Honors Trig/Precalc AB to BC or BC to AB
- AP Calc AB to BC or BC to AB
- IB Math 1 or 2 to Honor Trig/Precalc AB or BC
- AP Calc AB or BC to IB Math 1 or 2
- AP Stats to IB Math 1 or 2

**Course Selection Policy**Mathematics courses are designed in a specific sequence to ensure students learn all the appropriate mathematics content as outlined by the Pennsylvania Core Academic Standards, Standards for Mathematical Practice, and the Assessment Anchors and Eligible Content for the Keystone Exams. The program is designed so that all students complete at least Algebra 1 and two additional credits of math. Students wishing to change strands must be cautious to ensure they are meeting this requirement. Furthermore, changing strands generally includes a significant change in the rigor and expectations placed upon students. Therefore it is recommended that students have earned at least a 90% in a College Prep course before moving to an Honors course. Additionally, due to the rigor of the Honors level, it is expected that students earn at least a 75% each year in order to continue at the Honors level.

Students making selections based upon the traditional sequence of courses can do so without any consultation. Students wishing to make selections that deviate from the recommended sequence or involve a change in strand should consult with their teacher, their counselor, and possibly the mathematics content specialist to ensure it is an appropriate decision for the student.

**PSSA Performance**Student performance on the eighth grade PSSA will be factored into course selection decisions. Non-proficient performance on the PSSA indicates a need for greater support to ensure that students graduate with the expected level of mathematics knowledge.

**Keystone Exam Performance**Student performance on the Algebra 1 Keystone Exam will also be factored into course selection decisions. Passing the Algebra 1 Keystone Exam, beginning with the graduating class of 2022, will help to meet one of the Pathways to Graduation. Therefore, students who do not pass this exam will be required to retake the exam during a subsequent testing round. Students may be scheduled for 2 periods of mathematics in order to remediate and prepare for retaking the exam.

**Foundations of Mathematics****Grade 9/10/11/12, #MTH005, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY) ***Registration Restriction: To enroll in this course, students must be students with limited or interrupted formal education. Placement into the course is at the discretion of the ELD and counseling staff.*(This course may not be selected by students)

This course will assist students with limited or interrupted formal education bridge the gap between their current mathematics skills and the high school Pre-Algebra curriculum. Using individual and small group instruction and various online resources, the course will focus on providing students with the most critical concepts from the pre-high school PA Core Mathematics Standards. Specific emphasis will be placed on real-life application of mathematics skills and on preparing students for the topics that will be addressed in Pre-Algebra. After completion of this course, students will be placed in Pre-algebra.

**Pre-Algebra****Grade 9, #MTH009, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY) ***Registration Restriction: Placement into this course is at the discretion of the mathematics department.*(This course may not be selected by students)

This course will help students build a strong foundation for high school mathematics by learning and applying content from the mathematics strands: numbers and computation, geometry, algebraic concepts, and data analysis and statistics, as well as learning strategies for mathematical reasoning, problem solving and communication. The course will focus specifically on skills needed for success in Algebra 1, including order of operations, solving one- and two-step equations, and graphing/interpreting linear functions. A specific emphasis will be given to using step-by-step problem-solving and reasoning throughout the curriculum. After completion of this course, students will be placed into Algebra 1A, followed by Algebra 1B. At the conclusion of Algebra 1B, students will take the Algebra 1 Keystone Exam.

# college prep strand

**College Prep Algebra 1 A****Grade 9/10, #MTH010, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY), NCAA **

**College Prep Algebra 1 B****Grade 10/11, #MTH011KS, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY), NCAA **

*Prerequisite: Middle School Math 8 grade below 80%. PVAAS prediction scores, teacher recommendation, and STAR data will also be used in determining placement in the 1-year vs. 2-year Algebra 1 course.*

This course presents the Algebra 1 curriculum over the span of 2 years. Students must take both years. During this course, students will cover all material included in Algebra 1, while reviewing necessary pre-algebra topics in order to ensure success. Topics covered will include operations with real numbers and expressions, linear equations, linear inequalities, functions, coordinate geometry, and data analysis. Students enrolled in this course will be required to take the Keystone Exam at the completion of the Algebra 1B course.

**College Prep Algebra 1 - 1 Year****Grade 9/10/11, #MTH011YRKS, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY), NCAA ***Prerequisite: previously taken Middle School Math 8 with a minimum of 80%. PVAAS prediction scores will also be used in determining placement in the 1-year vs. 2-year Algebra 1 course.*

Topics covered will include operations with real numbers and expressions, linear equations, linear inequalities, functions, coordinate geometry, and data analysis. Note: Based on successful completion of this course, as well as teacher recommendation and Keystone Exam score, students will be placed into CP or Honors Algebra 2 in 10th or 11th grade. Students enrolled in this course will be required to take the Keystone Exam at the completion of the course.

**College Prep Algebra 2****Grades 9/10/11/12, #MTH031YR, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY), NCAA ***Prerequisite: successful completion of CP Algebra 1 or 1B*

Topics covered will include operations with complex numbers, non-linear expressions, non-linear equations, patterns, relations, and functions, applications of functions, and data analysis.

**College Prep Geometry****Grades 9/10/11/12, #MTH021YR, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY), NCAA ****Prerequisite: successful completion of CP Algebra 2 or CP Algebra 1B**

Topics covered will include properties of circles, spheres, and cylinders; properties of polygons and polyhedra, congruence, similarity and proofs; coordinate geometry and right triangles; measurements of two-dimensional shapes and figures; measurements of three-dimensional shapes and figures; and constructions.

**College Prep Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus****Grades 11/12, #MTH043, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY), NCAA** **Prerequisite: successful completion of CP Algebra 2 and CP Geometry**

This course builds upon the skills and concepts developed in Algebra 1, Algebra 2 and Geometry. Topics covered will include linear polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric functions, and piecewise defined functions. Students will study the properties of functions, the composition of functions, the algebra of functions and the graphs of the functions. Students will also learn the unit circle. Special Note: Juniors who enroll in this class may not take AP Calculus. Their remaining mathematics course options will be CP Calculus, AP Statistics, a semester of College Prep Statistics, or Computer Science electives.

**College Prep Calculus****Grade 12, #MTH046, 1 credit, 5 periods (FY), NCAA****Prerequisite: successful completion of CP Trig/Precalculus or H Trig/Precalculus**

This is an introductory calculus and analytic geometry course with an emphasis on applications and is taught from an intuitive approach. This course is not recommended for students interested in taking the AP Calculus test. Topics covered will include functions, limits, continuity, derivatives, area under curves, and integrals.

**College Prep Statistics****Grade 12, #MTH042, ½ credit, 5 periods (S), NCAA****Prerequisite: successful completion of Algebra 2**

This course focuses on the collection, organization, analysis and interpretation of data with an emphasis on hypothesis formulation and testing. The course is intended to provide an introduction to Elementary Statistics and basic probability. It is recommended for students who have determined that they will pursue business or social science curricula in college. Special Note: Students may not take this course in addition to AP Statistics. This course may be taken as an elective in the event that the mathematics graduation requirements have been fulfilled.

# honors strand

**Honors Algebra 2****Grades 9/10, #MTH033, 1 credit, weight 1.05, 5 periods (FY), NCAA*** Prerequisite: completion of CP Algebra 1 with a minimum grade of 90% or Middle School Algebra 1 with a minimum grade of 85%, teacher recommendation, and a score of advanced on the Algebra 1 Keystone Exam.*

This course is a continuation of the Honors Algebra 1 course. Problem Solving will be stressed. Topics covered will include operations with complex numbers, non-linear expressions, non-linear equations, patterns, relations, and functions; applications of functions; and data analysis. Special Note: Students can take this course along with an Honors Geometry during their sophomore year in order to take AP Calculus.

**Honors Geometry****Grades 9/10/11, #MTH023, 1 credit, weight 1.05, 5 periods (FY), NCAA***Prerequisite: completion of Honors Algebra 2 with a minimum grade of 75%*

This course builds on the concepts and skills developed in Honors Algebra 1 and Honors Algebra 2. The course will develop geometry as a deductive system and the relationships that exist between the elements of the system will be studied. Emphasis will be on the use of symbolic logic and proof. Topics covered will include properties of circles, spheres, and cylinders; properties of polygons and polyhedra; congruence, similarity, and proofs; coordinate geometry and right triangles; measurements of two-dimensional shapes and figures; measurements of three-dimensional shapes and figures; and constructions. Special Note: Students can take this course along with Honors Algebra 2 course during their sophomore year in order to take AP Calculus.

**Honors Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus AB****Grades 11/12, #MTH044, 1 credit, weight 1.05, 5 periods (FY), NCAA ****Prerequisite: completion of Honors Algebra 2 and Honors Geometry with minimum grades of 75%**

This course is designed to prepare the student for the Advanced Placement Calculus AB course. Relevant algebra skills will be reviewed during the course. Topics covered will include linear, polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric functions, and piecewise-defined functions. Students will study the properties of functions, the composition of functions, the algebra of functions, and the graphs of the functions. Students will also learn the unit circle. Special Note: This course is a prerequisite for AP Calculus AB.

**Honors Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus BC ****Grades 10/11/12, #MTH045, 1 credit, weight 1.05, 5 periods (FY), NCAA ****Prerequisite: completion of Honors Algebra 2 and Honors Geometry with minimum grades of 75%**

This course is designed to challenge students to draw connections from their previous mathematical studies and to continue toward a rich appreciation of higher-level mathematics. This course is also designed to prepare the student for the Advanced Placement Calculus BC course. Topics covered will include linear, polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric functions, piecewise-defined functions, partial fractions, and polar coordinates. Students will study the properties of functions, the composition of functions, the algebra of functions, and the graphs of the functions. Students will also learn the unit circle, sequences and series, and parametric and polar equations. In addition, this course will introduce concepts of limits as preparation for AP Calculus BC. Special Note: This course is a prerequisite for AP Calculus BC.

**Advanced Placement Calculus AB****Grades 11/12, #MTH047, 1 credit, weight 1.10, 5 periods (FY), NCAA ***Prerequisite: successful completion of Honors Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus AB or BC with a minimum grade of 75%*

This is an introductory calculus and analytic geometry course with emphasis on applications and is taught from an intuitive approach which provides a foundation for preparation for the Advanced Placement Calculus AB examination. Topics covered will include functions, limits, and continuity, derivatives, antiderivatives, and definite integrals. NOTE: There is a summer assignment for this course.

**Advanced Placement Calculus BC****Grades 11/12, #MTH048, 1 credit, weight 1.10, 5 periods (FY), NCAA ***Prerequisite: successful completion of Honors Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus BC with a minimum grade of 75%*

This is a full-year calculus and analytic geometry course with emphasis on theory and applications and is taught with a formal axiomatic approach. The course will prepare a student for the Advanced Placement Calculus BC examination. Topics covered will include functions, limits, continuity, derivatives, antiderivatives, definite integrals, and infinite series.

**Advanced Placement Statistics****Grades 11/12, #MTH057, 1 credit, weight 1.10, 5 periods (FY), NCAA ***Prerequisite: successful completion of any Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus course with a minimum grade of 75%*

This is an introductory college-level statistics course that introduces students to the major concepts and tools for collecting, analyzing and drawing conclusions from data. Topics covered will include exploring data, sampling and experimentation, probability and simulation, and statistical inference. Special Note: AP Statistics cannot be taken as a replacement for a Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus class but may be taken concurrently with one of the three Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus courses.

**IB Mathematics Year 1****Grade 11, #IBO311, NCAA**

**IB Mathematics Year 2****Grade 12, #IBO31, NCAA**

**IB Mathematics Year 1 - Accelerated****Grade 11, #IBO316, NCAA **

**IB Mathematics Year 2 - Accelerated****Grade 12, #IBO317, NCAA **

Students participating in the International Baccalaureate Programme during their Junior and Senior year will satisfy their mathematics graduation requirements through the completion of IB Math Year 1 and Year 2 courses. Topics include Precalculus, Trigonometry, Probability, Statistics, and Calculus. The course descriptions can be found in the International Baccalaureate section of the planning guide.

# computer science electives

Elective courses cannot be taken as replacement mathematics credit for any mathematics course prior to and including a trigonometry course. Computer Science courses cannot be counted as a mathematics credit for graduation.

**Introduction to Python****Grades 9/10/11/12, #MTH050, ½ credit, 5 periods (S), NCAA **

This course is designed for students with algebra readiness skills and those with no prior programming experience. This course introduces computer science programming using the Python programming language. This class is open to all students interested in exploring the basics of computer science. Special Note: This introductory level course should not be taken concurrently or after any other computer science elective courses.

**Year 1 – Honors Computer Programming****Grades 9/10/11/12, #MTH051, ½ credit, weight 1.05, 5 periods (S)***Prerequisite: successful completion of Algebra 1*

For students who intend to pursue a computer-related or engineering program in college, this course will introduce object-oriented programming using the Java-based language of Karel and objectdraw libraries. Students will learn the fundamentals of program design and implementation, focusing on objects and methods. Within this context, students will learn the basics of control structures, loops, user interfaces and graphics. Any student not taking this course and going on to AP Computer Science A will be required to complete some summer activities to ensure adequate preparation for the AP course.

**Year 2 - Advanced Placement Computer Science Principles****Grades 10/11/12, #MTH053, 1 credit, weight 1.10, 5 periods (FY), NCAA ***Prerequisite: successful completion of Algebra 2*

For students who are interested in a computer science, this course will utilize the Advanced Placement Computer Science Principles curriculum. Topics include: the digital (binary) representation of information – numbers, text, images, and communication protocols, Internet Protocol (IP), DNS, TCP/IP, cryptography and other security and hacking concerns, an introduction to programming in the JavaScript language and creating small applications (apps) that live on the web, and extracting knowledge from data by writing programs that generate data to model or simulate a scenario as well as process large lists of data imported from other sources and also pull data from live data APIs. At the conclusion of the curriculum, students will be prepared to take the Advanced Placement Computer Science Principles examination. Special Note: This course may not be taken after AP Computer Science A.

**Year 3 - Advanced Placement Computer Science A****Grades 11/12, #MTH052, 1 credit, weight 1.10, 5 periods (FY), NCAA ****Prerequisite: successful completion of Honors Geometry and AP Computer Science Principles**

For students who intend to pursue a computer-related or engineering program in college, this course will utilize the Advanced Placement Computer Science A curriculum in the language Java. Topics include: variables, classes, objects, control structures, arrays, object-oriented design, inheritance, polymorphism and recursion. Students will be exposed to large-scale projects as case studies. At the conclusion of the curriculum, students will be prepared to take the Advanced Placement Computer Science A examination. Special Note: This course may not be taken before AP Computer Science Principles if you plan to take both AP Computer Science Courses.